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OCTOBER, 1865. 



Lstter from Maj.-Gen. 0. 0. Howard, Chief of Bureau for Refugees, 
Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. 
*' Hev. Lyman Abbott, Secrctari/ American Union Commission. 

"Dear Sir: — Many questions are propounded to me as to whether the 
Bureau, of which I am in charge, embraces in its work the poor whites of 
the South. I answer, it does so far as that applies to the loyal refugees. 
This is all that is warranted by the law under which i am acting. Yet 
when ever any cases of necessity and sutfering are presented to me regarding 
these people, I always appeal to your association for aid. Everj-thing that 
you, as a commission, can do to facilitate industrial pursuits, to encourage 
eduCiation, and meet the wants of the sutfering amongst the poor white peo- 
ple, who have been degraded by slavery, is collateral with my speciality, 
and meets my hearty sympathy and support. 

The work of elevating the poor people of the South, of all classes, is the 
privilege — nay more, it is the duty of all true men in this transition period 
of our histoi-y as a nation. It is well to bear in mind, particularly amongst 
our Christian people, and at a time when public sentiment is likely to be 
absorbed by other objects of interest, that duty requires them to remember 
those suffering poor, and make their contributions to meet their pressing 
wants. The Union Commission affords facilities adetjuate to this important 
work, and it becomes the Christian churches to examine carefully the fields 
that demand the sort of labor referred to, and to seek earnestly and prayei'- 
fully to discharge the responsibilities, now more than ever devolving upon 
them, respecting this matter. Every assistance given to industry and 
education affords direct and indirect aid in the solution of the difficult pro- 
blems affecting the Freedmen. What we need at the South is Christian 
charity. All you can do to promote this spirit is positive help, and every 
block of prejudice removed clears the way for real, substantial progress. 
I trust your efforts will receive every encouragement and the Divine 

"Very respectfullj\ 

"0. 0. HOWARD, 

"Major General, Commissioner, &c. 
"Aug. 28th, 18G5." 

Letter from Maj.-Gen. A. E. Burnside. 

"Providence, R. L, Friday, Aug. 4th, 1865. 
^'Rev. Lyman Abbott, General Secretary American Union Commission. 

"My Dear Sir: — I am in receipt of your circular, and beg to express to 
you my great happiness at hearing of your organization. It will be fol- 
lowed in its work by the prayers of all the loyal people in the country. 
Made up, as it is, of the late workers in those two great charities, the 
Sanitary and Christian Commissions, it cannot fail to do great good. 

"Sincerely your friend, 




. hi 


|ts Origin, Objects, anb Operations. 

In June, 1864, Rev. Joseph P. Thompson, D.D., and Rev. Wm. I. Buddington, 
D.D., visited Tennessee as delegates of the Christian Commission. They 
witnessed the desolate condition of the country, the fences gone, implements 
of industry destroyed, houses burnt, churches and school houses standing 
idle or used for military purposes, while thousands of wretched refugees 
crowded Nashville and Louisville. The necessity of some organization to aid 
in rebuilding the places laid waste by war, as well as in giving temporary 
assistance to those who had suiFered from it, was apparent. They consulted 
with Andrew Johnson, then Governor of Tennessee, upon the subject, who 
strongly urged its importance; returned to New York to lay the partially 
developed plan before some leading citizens there; perfected the nucleus of 
an organization ; and visited personally President Lincoln, who not only gave 
the plan his warmest approval, but interlined in the proposed constitution, 
with his own hand, a phrase of his own suggestion. At the same time the 
War Department gave it the same facilities of transportation, &c., awarded 
to the Sanitary and Christian Commissions. Thus the Union Commission 
has not only received the approval of both the late and the present Presi- 
dent, but both of them participated in its formation. 

Organization. — This consists of branches established in the principal 
cities of the Union, from which delegates are elected who constitute the 
Commission, elect its officers and direct its affairs. 

Refugees. — Thousands of these, driven from their homes by the surging 
of contending armies, or the persecution of guerillas, escaped to our lines 
and were brought by government to the North. Sick, hungry, half naked, 
they were left upon the wharves of Cairo, Louisville and Cincinnati to die, 
or huddled uncared for in camps at Nashville, Memphis, Vicksburgh and 
other points. Many of them were loyal. Over three thousand women and 
children were gathered by government at Clarksville, from the mountain 
regions of the South, whose husbands and brothers had enlisted in the 
Union Army, leaving them to the mercy of the merciless guerilla. For these 
unfortunates, barracks were obtained from government, and rations were fur- 
nished. The people of the North were appealed to for aid. They responded 


generously. In temporary homes at Cairo, Ciucinnati, Louisville, Chicago, 
Baltimore and New York, these people were received. They were cleansed, 
fed, clothed, the sick were cared for and the well were provided with per- 
manent homes and employment in the country. Thus, by the charities of 
the North the Commission has been enabled ta provide permanently for 
from seventy-five to a hundred thousand refugees, and to relieve the country 
from the evils of a gigantic pauperism. This work is now over; these 
barracks are now all closed. 

Special Relief. — While the Commission was thus providing for refugees, 
the work of war went on with a rapidity quite unparalleled in history. 
Sherman marched unopposed from Atlanta to Savannah, from Savannah to 
Goldsboro. Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington, and finally Richmond fell 
into the hands of the Government. An immense train of refugees, black 
and white followed the Federal Army. The Union Commission entered the 
Southern field thus opened to it, and commenced its more comprehensive 
work. It sent a special agent to Savannah, another to Charleston, and another 
to Richmond. It sent supplies to other points to be distributed by the agents 
of the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, whose most efficient co-operation 
has always been given for the purpose. Thus it has sent supplies of food 
and clothing throughout the South, as far West as Little Rock, as far South 
as Fevnandina, &c. The people have generously given us the means for 
these benefactions. In a little over a year the Commission has raised nearly 
$150,000 in money and supplies, nearly all of which, however, are now 
distributed. We have thus aided, as nearly as we can estimate, twenty 
thousand sufi'ering poor in middle Tennessee ; an incalculable number in 
East Tennessee and Western Virginia, chiefly through the New England 
Branch ; over fifteen thousand in and about Richmond ; and through the 
Baltimore Branch have distributed nearly two thousand school books and 
Bibles, over thirteen hundred garments, besides seed and implements, in all 
over five thousand dollars worth, chiefly in the Valley of the Shenandoah. 
Smaller stores have been sent to other points. 

The necessity for this work is far from over. Oflicial reports, extracts 
from which are appended, show already that in certain regions the greatest 
destitution already exists, and give ground for the greatest apprehensions of 
actual starvation and death in many instances this winter, unless relief is 
afforded from the North. 

Inditsti-y and Emigration. — While we have thus been sending supplies 
of food and clothing to the destitute, we have also sent seed and implements 
for distribution by careful and sagacious agents, to those who are desirous 
of going to work, but are without the means of labor. At the same time 
we have opened in New York City a bureau of information for the benefit of 
such as wish to emigrate South. Here are to be found copies of the leading 
Southern newspapers, government maps of the Southern States, and detailed 
information as to business oi)enings, prices and character of lands, &c., 
gleaned from oflicial reports and extensive correspondence. 

E^ducaiiou. — By our contributions of special supplies we have opened 
the way for the more permanent and important work of education. The 

war tias effectually destroyed such systems of public instruction as formerly 
existed The school funds, either appropriated to military purposes, or 
converted into confederate bonds, are nearly all lost. The school houses, 
standing idle, or used as military hospitals and prisons are in sad want of 
repair. The people are without the necessary means to repair this waste, 
and yet the masses are very anxious to have public schools established. 
The American Union Commission co-operating with them, is aiding in the 
educational work in three ways. 

1. It has opened some few schools for the poor, which it maintains at its 
own expense. Two such were sustained in Richmond last spring and sum- 
mer, the Clergy giving the Commission the use of their lecture rooms for the 
purpose. \_Sefi Mr. Chase's Report Post.'\ The military authorities have now 
given us several tine buildings formerly belonging to the late confederacy. 
Our schools have been re-opened here and the frequent declaration that the 
poor whites have no desire to learn is sufficiently refuted by the fact that 
over a hundred children applied for admission before the teacher was on the 
ground to open the school. 

2. It commissions first class teachers who desire to make the South their 
home, and engage in teaching there. These go out to organize schools and 
academies in places where such assistance is desired by the people. In such 
cases it does not maintain the schools, but renders the people such tempor- 
ary assistance as is necessary to their maintenance. 

3. It is co-operating with the free school party of the South in establish- 
ing permanent systems of public education. It has for this purpose united 
with them in obtaining from the military authorities the release and repair 
of public school buildings, has procured and commissioned, at the request 
of the civil authorities, two young men, graduates and teachers of experi- 
ence, who have been appointed principals of the leading public schools of 
Nashville ; has sent another at Gov. Brownlow's request to re-open the 
Academy at Knoxville, and others to less important points in Tennessee. 
It has sent into North Carolina one of the late instructors of Yale College, 
to whom Gov. Holden has promised every facility in reviving the schools 
and aiding the educational interest of that State ; and it is now in corres- 
pondence with the State or local authorities in Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, 
North Carolina and Georgia, all of whom welcome our co-operation in this 
matter. In all these cases the schools are established in co-operation with 
the people, in buildings obtained from them, or with their sanction, and in 
every instance they are partially, in some cases, entirely supported by the 

Observations. — The American Union Commission is National in its 
character, comprising branches organized not only in the principal cities of 
the North, but also in several of the Southern States. Though undenomi- 
national, it is Christian in its spirit and purposes, and proffers its co-opera- 
tion and assistance in the work of evangelization to all the different 
denominations alike. It is catholic in its benefactions, recognizing no 
distinctions of caste or color, proffering its assistance to all men upon the 
score of a common humanity alone. Nevertheless, it carefully avoids the 

duplication of charities and conflict of organizations, by maintaining a 
cordial understanding and co-operation with the various societies organi- 
zed for the special benefit of the colored people. Neither political nor 
sectional in its aims, it is nevertheless composed exclusively of men of 
recognized loyalty and fidelity to freedom. Its purpose is not to aid in 
restoring the old order of things which the war has swept away, but to co- 
operate with all who are now sincerely seeking the restoration of the 
Union, in re-establishing it lipon the basis of universal freedom, education, 
industry, and Christian morality. 

This work is one not only of charity, but of patriotism. We have but one 
country. In the welfare of every part of America, all Americans possess an 
equal interest. Especially is it clear even to the least thoughtful that popular 
education is essential to the perpetuity of popular government. We appeal 
then to all Americans to unite in this work of civil and social restoration. 
We ask the clergy, who have so 'well instructed their people in the duty of 
patriotic self sacrifice, to instruct them in the no less imperative duty of 
patriotic beneficence. We urge the women of America to continue, in behalf 
of their destitute countrymen, the labors which have so abundantly provided 
for the soldier. And we especially call upon the Churches, which gave us so 
generously the means to provide for the temporal wants of the refugees, to 
give us also the means to carry on this other and more important work. 

Eev. Jos. P. Thompson, D. D., Pres. 

Rev. Lyman Abbott, General Secretary. 

Rev. Geo. J. Mingins, D. D., Financial Secretary. 

H. M. Pierce, L. L. D., Recording Secretary. 

Geo. W. Lane, Esq. Chairman Executive Committee. 

Hon. Martin Brimmer, Chairman Ex. Com. of N. E. Branch, Boston. 

Saml. C. Merrick, Esq., Pres. of Penn. Branch, Philadelphia. 

G. S. Griffiths, Esq., Pres. of Maryland Branch, Baltimore. 

CoL. C. G. Hammond, Pres. of N. W. Branch, Chicago. 

Hon. E. Root, Pres. of Tenn. Branch, Nashville. 

Horace L. Kent, Esq., Pres. of Richmond Branch, Virginia, 




•'Send five hundred barrels flour for the starving poor of Richmond," telegraphed Rev. Mr. 
Williams, the agent of the Christian Commission, to Mr. Stuart. The dispatch was forwarded to 
Dr. Thompson, our President, who telegraphed me at Washington: "We send five hundred 
barrels flour to Richmond. Go with it and report." It was of the best Georgeto\\n brands. 
Secretary Stanton ordered the transportation, and the little steamer John S. Ide, Wilson, master, 
brought it here. In order to prevent imposition and secure economy, the city was divided into 
twelve districts, and an inspector appointed, with moderate pay, in each. These gentlemen were 
residents of the city, and said to be loyal. Several of them had suffered incarceration in Libliy 
and Castle Thunder, while all were believed to be well qualified for their work. They did it well, 
observing closely the instructions, which were given to them. These were to make a personal 
inspection in their respective districts, to issue orders for supplies to such as were needy and 
deserving, to avoid giving to the well, and to such as had means or wealthy friends, and especially 
to note the circumstances of such as had been loyal throughout the rebellion and report them to 
me. The result of this plan of inspection was that impostors were shut out. The truly needy 
of either color who had no one to stand np and speak for them, the feeble who could not endure 
the crowd at the United States Commissary's office, and those whom the "relief visitors" had 
neglected or refused, because of their know n Unionism, were sought out. To such the substantial 
aid which we were enabled to give, was truly a God-send, and has often been received with tears 
and touching expressions of gratitude toward their Northern friends. 

Whu were Relieved. — " It may perhaps, give a clearer idea of the persons relieved, and the cir- 
cumstances under which the relief was given, by noting the remarks on the inspi-ctoi's tickets. 
Here are a few, which represent thousands : 

A. B. — " An honest German woman ; lives in hovel ; husband sick with consumption six years ; 
sells pies in the camp; has no stove; cooks on her neighbors'; has nothing now to live upon." 

Aunt Cloe. — "A very worthy colored woman, 75 years old; master turned her off; makes a 
little by washing; hasn't asked anything of the government. Says government set her free; 
thinks she ought to support herself now." 

Mis. J. — "A widow, sick; has eight children; nothing to eat; no means; can't get doctor; 
none of them will come unless they are paid." 

Mrs. A. — "Lives five miles on Fredericksburgh Railroad: husband crippled: five children: 
two sick; a poor woman ; no means ; works at hoeing corn or anything; thinks it honoraljle to 
work and glad to get it to do." 

Tliere were some grand spirits w'ho never bowed before the fire of secession even in Richmond. 
A few of these were wealthy, but many became much reduced and have been objects of our 
especial care. Let us turn again to the inspector's tickets, briefly: 

Mrs. D. — "Five brothers in the Union army ; three other relatives in the United States service ; 
daughters took care of sick Union prisoners : 10 in family; no means. Husband ran off to avoid 
conscription; would'nt fight, he said, against the old flag." 

Mrs. T. — "Widow; kept boarders; would'nt illuminate when the city was illuminated because 
she could not rejoice over the downfall of her country." 

Mrs. C. — "Threw out the old flag when the Yankees came in, which she had kept hid in her 

Mrs. L. — " Secreted Union men at the peril of her liberty and life ; no means now." 

Could you know the sad tale of uncomplaining suffering which attaches to such words through 
such times as they have seen, you would admire the humblest of this noble band. Let it not be 
forgotten that a cold winter will find them out of food — out of fuel and clothing, if not out of 

house and home. I cannot speak of them as I ought, to prtve j'ou a clear idea of their situation. 
It seems like speaking of the affairs of one's own hoi:sehold." 

Who were Denied. — "Some came dressed in silks and furs, set off with jewelry, still clinging to 
their effete aristocracy. When they demanded assistance, we advised them to sell their jewelry. 
When they insisted that " you have taken away our property (slaves) who used to support us, and 
now ynii are bound to feed us," we replied, " we don't issue on that basis,"' and never did in any 
instance. Some came who admitted that they owned houses and lands, and others who had hus- 
bands in good health, and yet begged with an effrontery unknown to us before. To such we gave 
gratuitous information on the modes of raising money on real estate, or the price paid per thou- 
sand for clearing bricks among the ruins. 

Snu-p-TTnuse. — " On learning that no use was made by the army of a large quantity of fresh beef, 
suitable for soup, and that also a quantity of confiscated rice could be had for the purpose, we 
started a soup-lmuse, and issued daily, for three months, abotit 700 rations of rich, delicious soup, 
at a cost of less than a cent a ration. Very few who received soup obtained any other aid. Of 
course, a certain portion of society "didn't want soup," and we never found it necessary to cater 
to their tastes. There were enough poor, worthy people, white and colored, glad to get it. When 
mothers walked a mile and a half through the broiling hot, midday sun to get a few quarts of 
soup, you may know there was need of it in the household. Seventy-five thousand rations of 
soup were thus dispensed. 

The Children and the fychnoh. — " The 'Freedmen's societies, while we were disbursing food to the 
hungry without distinction as to color, started several schools for the colored children, and ga- 
thered in large numbers who had hitherto been deprived of education. There was a section of 
the city known as Oresron Hill, where the old flag is said to have been kept floating longer than 
on any other spot in Virginia, and whose inhabitants claim nerer to hare heen niit nf the JJninn. 
The children had no schools, and hundreds were growing up in ignorance. An application came 
through Rev. Mr. McCarty, Baptist clergyman, to start a school in his church. It was accepted, 
and soon another started in the Methodist church near by. They increased rapidly; four 
teachers were employed, H. W. ITarvcy, graduate of New York State Normal School, as principal 
in the boys', and T. G. Wright, M. D., as principal in the girls' school, with two lady assistants, 
who resided in Richmond. They were supplied with books by the kind offices of Miss L. M. 
Thropp, who has a flourishing select school in Philadelphia. Another fine donation of books has 
been received of Messrs. Barnes & Burr, of New York. No charge was.madefor tuition." 

Garden Seeds — A r/ricultural Implements. — "No expenditure by the commission lias been more 
highly beneficial than the purchase of garden seeds for gratuitous distribution. We put them up 
in small packages and gave them out to persons having small farms to cultivate, tlius affording 
the means of making a living to very many, and giving a renewal of good seed f )r their surround- 
ing neighboi'hoods. Over 8000 papers have been distributed to applicants from all parts of the 
State. The released prisoners, as they laid on the ground in the square, often came round for 
meals and took home packages of seeds. They would sit in the front of the tent and talk of 
the war, denouncing it as " the rich man's war, but the poor man's fight," and not unfrequently 
express their honest love for the old flag above them, saying, " When I go to war again I shall 
go in under them Stars and Stripes." These men are yet to be the best citizens who have been 
engaged in the rebellion. 

" The utter destruction of the country for many miles around the city has no precedence, 
except where the tread of armed men has been. We issued to small farmers in this region, 
plows, spades, shovels, &c., to the number of 150, having about as many more on hand. Thns 
many have been enabled to start again, and may, some day, repay this timely assistance afforded 

Tlie Fourth nfjiily at nur Tent. — "By special request of the citizens, the milit.ary authorities 
had permitted us to pitch our tent in the Capitol-square, at once the most beautiful and com- 
fortable spot in Richmond. A photographer came on the afternoon of the Fourth to "take it." 
This attracted a small crowd. Soon many of our new friends and acquaintances joined it. We 
commenced distributing papers, tliinking they would go away. This only attracted more. Then 
we read Whittier's poem of her, "the bravest of all in Fredericktown," and the Declaration of 
Independence. They gave in hearty response three cheers for the Stars and Stripes, which always 
float over our tent. 

This impromptu demonstration was indeed a novelty. For four long years none 'who loved 
their country's flag had been permitted to see it floating there — and never before had the colored 
people enjoyed the privilege of the park on Freedom's birthday. They were largely represented 
at that gathering. 

Virginia's Future. — "There are indications of a return to sanity, and of accepting the new- 
order of things, which has uprooted their social life. Young men have gone out Irom their plea- 
sant city mansions, and taken their places on the abandoned farms and gone faithfully to work. 
Young women, too, whose ancestry are among the revered of the nation are asking for employ- 
ment. Often as they came for supplies, they have begged for work — " something — anything to 
do." " Give me tliat scoop." said one, "I'll shovel flour for you. I'm ashamed to beg; but I 
can't help it now ; my support is gone." The returning soldiers, it is said, have generj^Uy 
applied themselves to some honest calling. All this is an earnest of better things. 

'• Those who own lands, or mines, or mill seats, will sell, often at low rates. Through the war 
the old barrier exclusiveness has been shaken and will be broken down. Capital and men from 
abroad are invited to come and resuscitate the waste places and develop the untouched wealth of 
the State. Thought is freer and speech is free. Truth and error will now contend side by side. 
The result cannot be doubtful. A new era of progiess is at hand. If the public afl'airs of the 
State be, wisely administered, and the property-holders act discreetly toward the laborers there 
need be no doubt of brighter days, higher intelligence, and truer prosperity arising in Virginia 
than ever prevailed in her borders. 

What is Needed. — " But there is yet to be done in and for Virginia no small work by those who 
are the friends of true advancement and a nobler nationality. Just now there are thousands of 
poor who must receive assistance in food and clothing, or they will suffer from the cold and 
starvation during the coming winter. 

" The plain people of the South are friendly to the National Union when left to themselves, 
they have been and will be so in future. But they are poor, very poor now, and need the friendly 
hand extended to them. They are ready and glad to take the hand of true philanthropy and 
follow its guidance. The rich can take care of themselves. Garden seeds are needed to plant a 
hundred thousand garden patches; for, to use a common remark among them, "Good seed ran 
out under the Confederacy." Good teachers and high-minded Christian ministers have a rich and 
wide tteld here to enter upon. If they come in the right spirit they will win their way and be a 


Richmond, Va., Aug. 31, 1865. 

ii'ree Scliools.— The schools referred to in this report could not be carried 

on permanently in the lecture rooms of churches. And as soon as vacation 

and a little relief from the pressing importunities of the destitute gave Mr. 

Chase the leisure, he began to look about for appropriate buildings in which 

to re-open the schools in the fall. To secure these was a matter of no little 

difficulty. Nearly one-third of the city having been destroyed by fire, while 

the population of the city was greatly increased by the numbers who flocked 

to it from the surrounding country, it was almost impossible to secure, even 

at exorbitant rents, a room to sleep in, much less buildings adequate to the 

work which the Commission had undertaken. This the indefatigable energy 

of Mr. Chase accomplished — rent free. But we will let him tell his story in 

in his own words, merely premising that we quote, not from official reports, 

but fr,om private letters not written for publication. 

"Work has won. — I have this day, (Aug. 25th), taken possession, under orders from Maj.Gen. 

Turner, of the Confederate Naval Laboratory and Arsenal. These buildings are on Oregon Hill, 
and consist of two framed, each 20 x .35 ft., one framed, 2U x 75 ft., one brick, 22 x 35 ft., one ditto, 
SO X tj5 ft., and one ditto, 15 ft. square, each one story. Tlie wooden buildings are ceiled inside 
and pretty well lighted, adapted to school rooms and teachers' quarters. The brick are also one 
story, high ceilings, not well lighted, all slate roofed. They are by far the best Confederate 
buildings I have ever seen in the South. There is also a stable attached. The yard surrounding 
is well graveled. There is a good well in the grounds. All are finely enclosed. * * * * 

".%p. '22iid. — Following tip my iiropensity to get things without paying for them! I have suc- 
ceeded in securing a lot of settees, which, with a few benches I have bought, and a few more 
confiscated, will probably make enough for our Laboratory schools. It looks now as though we 
should get a good outfit for flOO. which in ordinary way would cost $500 or more. * * * 
Yesterday, got 1000 ft. of lumber gratis, and shall at once use it in preparing the teachers" rooms. 
* * * I have 2.5 of the desks from the rebel halls of Congress. Have bought no lumber, 
tore down the yard-fence tf> get it. * * * 0<-<. QfA, 1 opened the schools finally at nine o'clock 
by readiDg the 1.5th Chap, of John, and repeating the Lord's Prayer in concert with the school. 
About a hundred and fifty girls and boys were present. As I commenced registering their 
names, Mr. Washburne came in. I have telegraphed to Miss Kate Thropp, of Philadelphia, of 
whom you are already informed, to come on immediately. We shall want three lady teachers in 
the Laboriitory schools. * * * xhe TYeather is fine, and the prospect for our work never 
lookeil fairer. 


On the 1st of October, Mr. Andrew Washburne, an experienced teacher 
from Mass., formerly principal of a Normal school in that State, was engaged 
to go to Richmond to superintend the educational work of the Commission. 
On the 19th, ten days after the opening of the school, he writes reporting 
that the one school has grown into three; that the attendance has increased 
to 235; that he is compelled to refuse admission to any more, as the rooms 
are already full; and, that two applications have been made to him to open 
additional free schools in different parts of the city. These facts sufficiently 
demonstrate the falsity of the oft repeated statement, that the children of 
the poorer classes of the non-slaveholding whites of the South, have no 
desire to learn. They are exceedingly eager for instruction. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Rev. Leonard, W. Bacon, D. D., of 
New Haven, and Christopher R. Robert, Esq., of New York, have now gone 
to Richmond for the purpose of consulting with leading citizens there, in 
respect to the adoption of some system of co-operation in promoting the 
cause of popular education in the city and the State. We hope to have 
their report in time to append to this pamphlet. 



/?./«(/««.— "The Nashville Refugee Aid Society was organized March 17th, 1864, and subse- 
'(ueiitly by vote, became a branch of the American Union ("omniission. There has also been a 
very eSicient ladies' society, entitled "The Ladies' Union Aid Society," which, though maintain- 
ing a separate organization, has acted as an auxiliary. Most of our distributions of clotmng and 
provisions for. the sick in Refugee Hospitals, have been made through this branch. 

" It is estimated that the receipts in cash and supplies up to date, (June, 1S65), will not fall 
short of §25,000, and that the whole number assisted, will not fall short of 20,000. Last year, 
(lS6-t), the Society employed Mr. R. E. Farwell to conduct a refugee farm in the vicinity of Nash- 
ville. It furnished a home for about a hundred and twenty-five, mostly women and children. 

" A day school and Sunday sbool was organized for the children, about forty of whom attended 
regularly. — The fathers of these children were for the most part soldiers in the Union Army. The 
labor on the farm was performed entirely by refugees, and the products went for their sustenance. 

Their estimated value was about $4,0(10. In March last, by request of Maj. Gen. Thomas, I sent 
supplies to the destitute families in Detatur, Aliibama, fur which I drew on Mr. Odiorne, of Cin- 
cinnati, (tlie Western Secretary of tlie Union Commission.) 

Education. — "'It is to be hoped that the calls for relief among refugees will cease in a few 
months, but the work of the Union Comniission will not then be finished. If I understand 
correctly the object of its organization, the question presents itself: AVhat plan of benevolence 
will best secure the greatest amount of good to the Southern States, just emerging from a stata 
of anarchy, i)ito a new order of social life? I will briefly indicate what, in my judgment, such a 
plan should be — The Sjuthern States never had a public school system. Their peculiar system 
of labor forbade it. They had private schools which afforded instruction to the lew, while the 
many were compelled to grow uii and remain in ii;noraiice. The late rebellion in the main grew 
out of this fact. This must be changed. The intellectual and moral character of the Southern 
people can be elevated and sustained only through the medium of common schools, accessible to 
all classes — white and colored — and by faithful Christian teaching from the pulpit. Tennessee 
will establish her schools for w-hite and colored pupils. These schools will need well qualified 
teachers, and the Union Commission can render valuable assistance in supplying the schools 
with such teachers. Some pecuniary aid may also be required in sustaining the teachers in 
these schools for a short time, which it may be well for the Commission to render." 


Nashville. — The suggestions of this report in respect to schools have been 
carried out. In the spring of 1865 there were no free schools in Nashville. 
The school buildings were still occupied as hospitals by the militaiy. In iMay 
a committee visited Washington to urge the surrender of the buildings to 
their proper purpose. It was done. At ihe request of the city educational 
authorities, two young men were sent out by the Commission, especially 
selected by a committee of Yale College, of which they were graduates, to 
take charge, the one of the classical department of the High School, the 
other of the principal public school of the city. The latter, Mr. AVare, 
writes on the 25th of September : — 

" I reached this city in safety on the evening of Saturday, the 9th inst. I found myself on my 
arrival appointed to the I'rincipalship of the Howard School — the largest public scliool in the 
city. The house is a very good one, much better than I exi>ected to find South. It will accom- 
modate SbO, and require 15 teachers. The position is very difficult and responsible. There have 
been no public schools here fot four years, and the houses have been used as hosiiitals. The tark 
of bringing order out of the chaotic mass which came together last Monday, was no small one; 
but we have been at it a week, and to day there was a collection of children which looked and 
acted quite like a school. 

" There is beginning to be a good deal of interest here in the subject' of education. The State 
Teachers' Association, a new organization, held its services in the Stale House, last week, Tliurs- 
day and Friday. Though the numbers were not large yet the spirit was g0(jd. I have had the 
pleasure of li.^tening to a bdl creating a fine school system for the Sate, which is .»oon to be intro. 
duced into the legislature. It is a veiy liberal bill, giving six months edncati.ju to all children 
lilack and white; and should it pass, as there is reason to hope it will, it will put Tennessee on a 
par with any other sister States in educational advantages. The great trouble for the present 
will be a want of competent teachers. I think many mubt come from the North. 

"Allow me to give you a simple sketch of the history and present condition of the public schools 
of Nashville. In 1854, a house was erected here for free school purposes, and Mr. J. F. Pearl, 
formerlj' Superintendent of Public Schools in Natchez, Miss., then Superintendent of Pablic 
Schools, Memphis, Tenn, was invited to come here and organize a system of public scho Js. In 
December of that year he came, and in February, 1S55, the school was commenced. Tluit house 
the llume Building, was soon full, and others were elected, till there were four in all, — the 
Hume, Hynes, Trimble, and Howard. Of these, the Howard is the largest and the best planned. 
Under Mr. Pearl's management, the schools went on very prosperously till the war broke out. 
In July, 1861, Mr. Pearl was warned away from Nashville by theTigilance Committee, and went 
North. The schools continued under rebel management something less than a year and then 


closed. The houses have been used by the Government as hospitals. After this interregnum of 
four years we are just getting under way again. Of course, all the organizing and grading has 
to be done over again. I can assure you it is no small tas-k. 

"Before the war there were about twenty.two hundred children in the schools. There are not 
quite as many as that now, but they are coming iti very rapidly. At the Howard Building I 
have about six huiiared and fifty, with room for about one hundred more. We are having, so far, 
very good success, and hope we shall continue to do so. We are here at the State Capital, and 
are every way " a city set on a hill." I hope we shall be able to give a good light to guide the 
State onward and upward in the good cause of popular education." 

Knoxville. — In August last, we received from Gov. Brownlow a letter 
containing the following extract : — 

" We have a brick academy, in East Knoxville, 40 x 60 ft., two stories high. The most of the 
building was erected by me, by subscription, for a high school and for religious worship. It 
would be the very place for Mr. Adams of whom you spoke, to start in, but it is occupied by our 
forces as a military prison, and mechanics estimate that it will require i?.3,000 to put it in order. 
I understand the military intend to surrender it soon. * * * j would assist Mr. Adams 
in getting up a free school there, and introducing himself for future usefulness, if we had the 

Immediate application was made to the military authorities for assistance 
in putting this academy in otder. It was granted. Mr. Adams having been 
already commissioned to act as agent in Georgia, Mr. John K. Payne, another 
graduate, was sent thither instead. He has opened the academy success- 
fully ; writes, that his school is nearly self-supporting, and probably will be 
entirely so ; that he commenced with thirty pupils, and that the number 
promises to double in a week or two. He has already written to us to send 
out three other teachers to East Tennessee. One of these is already on the 
way. In Mr. Payne's last letter, 6th October, he writes : 

" The Commission will not be called on for any repairs for my academy, as the public funds have 
proved sufficient, and the Trustees have turned over to me the current rent of a dwelling-house 
attached to the academy (all belongs to the State), for further repairs. My school is very plea- 
sant and promising; thirty-four pupils this week and six more promised for next week. Most of 
these will pay J3 per month tuition. Th s is the only school-house to accommodate about 400 
boys who live in Knoxville. I am visiting and getting acquainted, and can probably enlarge my 
school so as to justify two teachers." 

More Schools Wanted. — On the ICth of October he writes again: 
" Rev. Samuel Sawyer, lately of Knoxville, now preaching at Rogersville, whence he was driven 
by the rebels three years ago, informed me two weeks ago, that a first-rate teacher was needed 
there, and he nieulioned ah adjoining village suitable for commencing a school. .Tacksboro has 
been represented to me as a good place, and there is room for another school in Bluunt Co., which by 
the way is one of the best educational counties in the State. I have talked with men who attend 
Court here, from every quarter and' of every station in life, and my general impiession is that an 
enterprising man could succeed in any of the county towns, especially those I have naiiK il." 

Mr. W. B. Davenport, of Yale College, was sent out in September, at the 
request of Rev. M. Lamar, a Presbyterian Clergyman of Marysville, East 
Tennessee, to open a school there. On arriving there, he was heartily wel- 
comed by the people. He writes under date of 3rd October: 

•' On the iSth I commenced my labors with nearly thirty wild urchins, who had hardly attended 
school lor three and a half years. I brought much zeal to the woik, but found the stock had to 
be replenished every day. The school-house is built of logs, 20 ft. long, 16 ft. broa<l, seats are 
boards on pins in the form of a T, without vestige of backs ; hero I preside with all the dignity 
I can summon. As yet all has gone smoothly. I have endeavored to maintain order without 
the whip, a thing never before attempted in this region. I think I shall succeed. 1 wrote to 
Judge Koot in respect to the need of wheat seed for planting, and I think he may have written 


•' Here they plant wheat tlie second week in October, the crop this Spring was very small, art! 
they have not enough to plant, and can hardly buy any at any price. As a general thing the 
people are kind, generous, and hnspitalde. No one could be more so, but their means are small — 
their houses are small. No Union man can be found who has not lost more or less of stock. 

" For three, ye.urs they have, had to depend on Rebels for teachers altogether." 

The spirit of the people of East Tennessee and their great anxiety to secure 
the blessings of popular education, are striKingly illustrated by the follow- 
ing extract, clipped from the recent address to his constituency, by Geo. ]?. 
Grisham, VEsq., a candidate for the Tennessee legislature : 

" Should it be your pleasure to elect me, fellow citizens, the first and gi'eatest question which 
shall engage my attention will be that of education. Upon this subject I may be considered an 
enthusiast. But the importance attaching thereto should demand the most serious consideration 
and zeal of our law-making and public representatives. In my humble judgment, there is no ques- 
tion which is of greater or more vital interest to our country. In the palmiest days of our State, our 
system of education was never what it ought to have been. Let us look at the Northern States 
of our Union, and behold the contrast ! For instance, take a regiment of soldiers from a Northern 
State, and as a general rule, you will find that at least nine-teuths of the members can read and 
write. Take one of our Tennessee regiments, and behold how sad has been the neglect of men, 
who have hitherto had the control and management of our State aflairs. The 'Township 
System' of education in the North has worked wonders in the difi'usiun of useful knowledge 
among the msisses. Here, we have been ground down by the heel of a petty aristocracy, who 
cared not for the common people. But, thanks to a benign Providence, the day of their destiny 
is over; and, to day, the eagle of liberty perches upon the banner of a free and independent 
Republic. Now can we begin to lift our eyes and behold, through the glorious sun-light of God's 
blessings, the handwriting on the wall — 'Progress — Refinement — Education — Liberty — Success!' 
Fellow Citizens, above all things else, we need the intellectual and moral training of our youth, 
which, for four dreadful years of bloodshed and carnage, have been almost entirely neglected. 
The condition of our country, in this respect, is a stigma upon our fair fame as a peoj^le — a people 
whose loyalty has been that of undying devotion." 

Fellow Citizens, this is an unconscious appeal to you. What answer do 
you make to it? AVill you, who have always enjoyed the blessings of a free 
education, extend your aid to such noble spirits, endeavouring to secure to 
their children henceforth those privileges which in the past have been 
denied them ? 


Physical De.stittitioii. — In some parts of Georgia the prospects are very 
encouraging — the crops, though small in quantity, are good ; industry is 
reviving and trade is re-commencing. But in other localities the destitution 
is very great ; and the most favored portions of the State only have enough 
for their own support. Nowhere is there surplus sufficient to meet the 
wants of the more destitute neighborhoods. The track of Sherman's army 
is a scene of desolation, especially between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and in 
the region immediately about Savannah. Having received both through the 
military authorities at Macon and Atlanta, and from the citizens of Savan- 
nah, a strong representation of their necessitous condition, two agents were 


-Sent to explore and report the facts. Hon. E. Root, of Nasiivilic, was directed 
to visit Atlanta from the North, and Mr. E. B. Adams, a few weeks later, was 
sent to Savannah, with directions to explore the State from that point, tra- 
versing especially the track of Sherman's army, and thus reaching Atlanta 
from the East. Mr. Root was provided by Government with a special train 
for the purpose. In his report, dated 4th September, he writes : 

"I have lecoiitl^' made a journey through Northern Georgia and Alabama, and Eastern Ten- 
nessee. Houses, fences, cattle, horses, sheep, hogs and chickens, liave almost entirely uisappeared, 
and the women and children and few remaining men are in a state of great destitution. The 
villages between Cliattanooga and .Atlanta are in r\iins, and I do not remember seeing asmi^e on 
any human face in any place there is between tbose two points. Through that whole tUstance, 1 
did nol see as onuch fuod (/rowing fur tiian or beast as can be found on a respectable Nortliern 
farm. In Southern Tennessee and Northern Alabama, the condition is much the same. In 
almost every house that is left standing, want and famine are the principal inmates. This you 
can see in tlie faces of the women and children. Corn meal is their principal food, and of this 
the daily allowance is small. Many have not had a taste of meat of any kind for months. Most 
of tlio.-c who have land have not means of cultivating it. The war has left them with nothing 
to work with. * * * In East Tennessee the condition of thnigs was very different. There 
I saw respectable farms under cultivation with comparatively good crops." 

This statement is abundantly confirmed by Mr. Adams. He shall tell his 
story in his own words. We only regret that we have not space for the 
publication of his letters in full. They bear date, September 19th, 23rd, 
27th, and October 2nd, 11th, and 20th: 

Savaitnali. — " There is frightful destitution here. It is partially met by the Home Relief Fund, 
which i.btains its re.sources fri m an amount of rice which Gen. Sherman captured here. 'J his 
enables the city to distribute the following rations to adults and one-half of the same to children. 
viz. : — 'i lbs. rice, 3 lbs. flour, and 1 lb. meal for two week's subsistence. But by the middle of 
No^'cmber this and iis source will be altogether consumed; and furthermore, the people, accord- 
ing U> the most leliable information, cannot support their poor. When this Ilonie Re:ief i'und 
began its vvoi k it canvassed the city, put on iis books only those who " could not live"' without, — 
heliiless widows, the infirm, etc. — excluding all healthy males ; all females who had '-healthy 
hu-ibands," or were themselves young and healthy. The number on the books is about seven 
hundred families, averaging three grown persons each; two children couiiting as one adult, 
excluding a hundred and forty-nine refugee families, which the city hopes will be su|iported by 
the government. This airaugement and >ome of the men who are engaged in this woik are at 
our seivice whenever I think it best to introduce supplies. I can have storage and office rooms 
free of expense. 

Two Ca^es of Destitution. — " I saw a family Uvst Monday, consisting of a man who had an ampu- 
tated yet unhealed arm, sufl'ering from typhoid fever, a wife, and three small children, one of 
whom has also the typhoid fever. This family lives in a very poor old hut, ijosses-ses only what 
clothing they have on their backs. The two sick ones were stretched out on the floor with 
nothing but an old army blanket underneath. They subsist entiiely on the small ration given 
by the Home Fund. This is only one out of hundreds similar. Now what are such persons going 
to do dining the coming winter. * * * * 

"Theie arc very many wretclicd beings about the bye-ways of the city, wjio have nothing 
scarcely to cover them. So, too, the country about is filled with Ihem, though they are fast 
coming to the city. I met, a few days since, a woman, who, with a large family of children, had 
just conic in. She reports th^it two men came to her garden, picked otl' the green ears of corn, 
stole her pig, and took away everything she had, leaving her utterly destitute of winter support 
Tliese nufu, probably, were in equally destitute circumstances, and were stealing to bring into 
m irket and exchange for the necessiti(!8 of life. She, with her family, had walked about twenty 
mdes to };ct here. * * * * 

"Mv little observation in the adjacent towns has afforded me a slight insight to great destitu- 
tion. The people contrive to get something to eat by hunting and fi.-hing, but appear altogether 
destitute of a comfortable lodging. Every one speaks of terrible sufl'ering in the adjoining coun- 


ties. They leU nf naked human beings curling down by the side of their once prosperous and 
comfortable homes, now reduced to nothing save the roots of an old brick chimney ; or, sleeping 
in sheds sometimes, and eating only what they can beg, steal, or pick up. This is report, coming, 
however, from authentic sources. * * * The spirit of the people appears good. They are 
willing to accept the condition thej' are in as a necessary result of the war, and feel grateful for 
any marks of sympathy or even for anticipated assistance. 

"The city is thoroughly destitute of all mechanical industry. One wheat-grinding mill and an 
iron foundry on a small scale, is all there is of that class of business. Not one chair, turner, pail, 
tub, cloth, or paper factory. One man is here to day, from the North I suppose, purchasing rags, 
old cotton, paper, etc., for the merely nominal price of a quarter to half a cent per pound, which 
are worth at the North from three to ten cents. Water privileges are excellent here, I am told, 
and why should not these things be manufactured here. 

Education. — " I hear various and contradictory reports in regard to the educational status of 
Georgia. One class of men say that Georgia is one hundred years behind in education. Another 
say Georgia is a fairly educated Stute, she stands on an equal footing with Mass. or Conn. My 
opinion is that both are partially correct. The aristocrats are fairly educated. But the "poor 
whites" the " Crackers" are sadly deficient. In Clinch Co., as the Provost Marshall, who admin- 
istered to her inhabitants the oath, says, eiglity out of a hundred can neither read nor write. 
This is a fact. How, now, can they be educated?" 

Ou the 20tli day of October, Mr. Adams having returned from a tour of Cen- 
tral Georgia, in which he visited Milledgeville, Augusta, Macon, Atlanta, 
and other points, writes a full report of his journey. In the course of this 
trip he had interviews both with leading men of the State and with officers 
of the Freedmen's Bureau. 

"Yours of September 'Ibth. and 30th, and October 3rd and 10th, together with Mr. Allan's of 
the 7th October, auaouncing the shipment of clothing, ai-e at hand. Having just arrived in this 
city, I have not examined the clothing — shall give my attention to that matter immediately. 
Without douht, I can get free transportation for the quantity destined for Athens. It will be 
very timely both here and there. * * * * 

Agricultural Wants. — " The charity that would be most acceptable and effectual to the upper 
portion of the State, is, a distribution of seeds and agricultural implements. I learn that the 
counties of Dade, Catoosa, Whitfield, Gordon, Cass, Cobb, Fulton, Dekalb, and Clayton, were 
literally swept, and are now utterly destitute (i. e. in the case of a majority of the families) 
of things of this kind, * * * * 

"In ilacon there is much personal destitution and distress. There are five hundred helpless 
widows, and each widow has, upon the average, two children each, making in all one thousand 
children. These fifteen hundred white people are dependent upon the charity of the city. The 
negroes here are in a frightful state of want and suffering. The city does nothing for them but 
to bury them when dead. Tlie number thus interred in Macon, averages seventy-five to a hun- 
dred weekly. Ten were picked up dead in the streets last week. Such is the mortalitv and 
suffering among these poor people, in spite of what is done for them by the Bureau. Supplies 
of food are furnish d by Government to the worst cases. There are eight colored schools in 
Macou, superintended by the Rev. Mr. Roberts. * * * * 

"The great majority of the white children, there being about six hundred old enough for 
school, are without its privileges. There are several private schools there, but few, compara- 
tively, of the poor orphans can attend. I conversed with several prominent men in repaid to 
the education of these. They are anxious for it, and willing to have free schools opened. The 
Mayor favors the teaching of these poor children, — says the city will co-operate and assist a good 
deal. I would respectftilly suggest that we make the following proposition to the Mayor and 
Aldermen of Macon— viz., to procure, free of expense to the city, two male teachers for one yeai, 
who shall open two primary free schools, provided that the city furnish suitable buildin"-s and 
assistant lady teachers; schools_to begin January 1st, 1866. * * * 

Atlanta. — "There are many in Atlanta who have no shelter of any kind, but sleep where ni^'ht 
overtakes them, — every old dilapidated freight-car is converted into a dwelling-house. Every 
rag of canvas or old tent deserted by the soldiers, is made a home for families, — every old shed 
is occupied. Food is a very costly article, and in many cases insutficient. Yet the Mayor says, 
'We will trj- and get along; if you can assist us to schools you will do the present generation 


gveat jrnod. The military pnwpr grants rations to the poor and destitute whom I recommend/ 
'We who have a little will also do something,' says another. * * There are one or two 
private schools there. But there are five hundred children who have ho school privileges. A 
good share of these would gladly attend a charitable school." 


.In this State there was before the war a strong interest in the cause of 
popular education. There was a large school fund. And, notwithstanding 
the difficulties in the way of establishing a system of public schools, very 
considerable progress had been made in that direction. Even during the 
war, owing largely to the efforts of C. H. Wiley, Esq., the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, the schools were continued. But the close of the 
Confederacy brought them to a close. The funds were nearly all lost in the 
universal wreck. And, though the people are very anxious to have free 
schools re-established, there appears to be little prospect that they will be 
able to provide for the wants of their State, by either contributions or taxa- 
tion. Rev. Fiske P. Brewer, formerly one of the instructors of the scientific 
department of Yale College, has gone into North Carolina, under the aus- 
pices of this Commission, to aid in re-establishing public schools in that 
State. He is warmly welcomed by Gov. Holden, who writes to him: "I will 
particularly lend all the aid in my power to the great and permanent cause 
of education ;" and, by Mr. Wiley, who writes : " If we expect to remain a 
free and civili/ed people, we must educate our children." 

From Mr. Brewer's letters we make some extracts. They bear date the 
last of September and the first of October: 

An Interview loith Gov. Holden. — "I called on Gov. Ilolden last night, at his house, by 
invitation. He says, ' The people are as poor as they can be. In the Eastern portions of the 
State in Wilmington, and Newbern especially, which have been longest in the National posses- 
sion, there has been the greatest revival of industry, and there the people might do something for 
the support of free schools. In this city, in Hillsboro, Greensboro, and Charlotte, all important 
centres, they could hardly do anything at present; but instruction for the poor is much needed.' 
He is for immigration and everything that would favor it, as is also every one that I met. 
He says the Northern people must come down here, as they go into the Western States, and bring 
their free schools with tliem.' " * * * 

Srhmils in Raleigh. — "I have been making personal explorations about this city, and am 
convinced that a school which will admit children free is a great desideratum. My estimate 
is that there are over five hundred schoolable children here, and not over two hundred and 
twenty-five in school. At a house where I was this morning, the girl, fourteen years old, has 
just left off school because they could not afford the reduced rate of two dollars a month, which 
the teacher had consented to receive. 'We are all pressed down,' said the mother, by way of 
apology. 'I wish you would start a school here,' said the girl, ' I'd like to begin ne.xt week.' 
At another house I asked the girl, of about the same age, if it would be a good place in that 
neighborhood for a school. 'There are a heap of poor children hero that would like to go if 
there was one where they could ; I'd like to go myself.' * * * 1 have the promise of a build- 
ing here in the city for our purposes. It was furnierly a church, but for four years has contained 
army harnesses. It is too small for the highest utility, 34 x 42 ft. outside, and needs some 


cleaning, etc., but it is in the best possible location, in the heart of the city. I have offered the 
trustees fifty dollars for the use of it the coming year, and the offer has been accepted." * * * 

A teacher, a graduate of Yale College, Mr. 0. K. Burchard, of Binghamp- 
ton, N. Y., has been sent on to open this school, which will doubtless be 
comiuenced before this report can be in print. 

Beaufort. — " Last night I returned from a very instructive trip to Beaufort. I have learned tlie 
feeling of the people on free schools and education generally. Beaufort is a good position for an 
able teacher of boys. There is a good room in possession of the Freedmen's Bureau, which Capt. 
McSnell offered to turn over to us. I would recommend that the place be occupied by a first- 
class teacher, who will make himself some reputation by actual teaching, alid then appeal to the 
town to support him at the bead of a free school. There are in the city a hundred and fifty 
children of schoolable age, whose parents are, or think they are too poor to pay."' 

TFi/na'njrioB.— "Wilmington has a population of 12,000. Number of children in school about 
five hundred — in some twenty schools. Usual tuition in good schools is %'ib for nine months. 
Children too poor to attend school estimated at five hundred. The town included four school 
districts and had two schools. One of the buildings has been torn down during the war." * * 

Mr. Brewer called upon the school committee, who welcomed him most 
cordially, and manifested an earnest desire to have a free school opened in 
the remaining building, the use of which they oifered him for the purpose. 
Their statement, written at his request, give the facts very fully. 

" We have in our district, which comprises two school districts, a very good school-house, 
capable of acommodating from one hundred to a hundred an<i twenty scholars. 

'• We will put this at your service. As the patrons of the former school were very jioor, there is 
little to expect froru them in the way of remuneration. We made our old school under the 
name of "Union Free School" entirely free, giving always the preference to the most needy. 

"It is doubtful if you can rely upon any assistance. Yet there are many who would willingly 
assist did their means permit. The school-house is at your service to establish a free school for 
poor white children. And we will gladly avail Ourselves of the assistance so kindly volunteered 
by your Commission. M'e have heretofore received from the State the quota ot two districts, 
amounting to from $200 to 1250 per annum. We do not think this annual amount will be dis- 
continued, as every effort of our citizens will be excited to aid this object." 


The following report of Rev. J. H. Le.\rd, formerly a Chaplain in the 
Union Army, gives an account of the condition and wants of the people of 

Fort Smith, Ark., September 3(Jth, 18(55. 
Rev. Lyman Abbott, Secretary American Union Commission: 

"Dear Sir, — DViriug the months of August and September I have been making investigations 
in regard to the destitution of the people of Arkansas. To accomplish this I Lave obtained the 
voluntary services of ten gentlemen living in as many different counties, besides several promi- 
nent officers and citizens, who have been and are now traveling over the State. I have vi^ittd 
Sebastian, Crawford, Franklin, Johnson, Yell, Hot Springs, Scott, Pelaski, Worchita, and Saline, 
embracing the larger portion of the State and toUowingthe war track. Having been in the State 
the last two years, and the most of the time serving the poor, I am familiar with their wants." 

Destitution. — "The greatest desolation by the war and consequently the greatest destitution, 
are in the western, north-western, and eastern portions of the State. Though the interior and 


Bouthern counties suffered much, yet compared with the other portions of the Stfito they are in 
a o-ood condition. A great part of what was known as the " Fiontier Distiict," during the war, is 
simply in ruins, marked by a desolation of the most saddening character. Town^, villages, and 
farm-houses are burnt to the ground, the chimneys still standing to remind the observer of the 
elegant mansion or cottage, and the once happy but now ruined family. Churchees and school-houses 
have shared a like destruction. The farms are grown over with a luxuriant crop of weeds; the' 
lences in many places burnt and the fields an open waste. The stock (where the army was) left 
a'ivehas grown wild, and cannot easily be recognised by owners. Thousands of families who 
have been in exile are returning to meet this prospect. They come with nothing to start life 
anew, not even garden seeds. 

"They are trying to get a little to eat and wear, and are moving into the smoke-houses and 
stables that have escaped the devouring flames, until they can do better. Many will haul with a 
poor ox-team, or cows yoked up, their bread from one to three hundred miles, aud glad to get it 
even on such terms. 

'•But little grain has been raised in the western counties this year, but in the southern, corn is 
reported to be abundant and cheap. The colonies about the military stations raised a moderate 
crop of corn, but little more, however, than will supply themselves, as it is now clearly seen since 
the crop is gathered. 

" It was thought during the early part of the season that the people might subsist themselves 
upon what they had raised, with what would be brought from a distance by merchants arid 
others, but it is now evident that many, very many of the poor will suffer, unless the hand of 
benevolence supplies them. By the poor, we mean the aged, sick, cripples, the widows and 
orphans, whose name is legion. 

" Governor Murphy writes to me as follows : " Every county in the State needs the work of 
the Commission, but especially Van Buren, Bard, Fulton, Madisin, Leary, Newton, Carrol, and 
Marion. The people of those counties are starving both for material and intellectual aid. This 
field will richly repay cultivation. God bless the noble Union Commission. Its labors will pro- 
duce a ■rich harvest. 

'•We will be under the necessity of calling on our Northern friends for help to keep the poor 
from starving." 

Want of Clothing. — I Intend to apprise them as soon as possible of the facts. Many that can 
subsist themselves cannot renew their clothing. There is but little money among tlie poor peo- 
ple and no cotton scarcely cultivated. They can neither buy nor manufacture clothing in many 
cases and must be supplied, or exposure and death will ensue. Not unfrequcntly, women and 
children walk to Fort Smith over roads of twenty to fifty miles, without a change of clothing, in 
search of food, and at this time I have no supply on hand for them. Wo must have vast quanti- 
ties of clothing as soon as possible. 

" Will not the ladies enable us to meet tltis pressing want! Will they not orijanize their sewing 
societies this winter to relieve this frightful destitution! 

Education. — I have opened no schools yet, though the intellectual wants of the people are great 
yet for months, or till another crop is raised, the great struggle will be for life. I am waiting for 
instuctions from the Commission on that subject; in the meantime laboring to create a living 
sentiment in favor of the free school system, which I hope will prevail at no very distant day in 
all the South. This is a great desideratum. I have met with no positive opposition to the Com. 
mission. The poor loyal people of Arkansas will receive it with gladness, and regard it as the 
work of love. No one oftn calculate the salutary moral influence it may exert as well as the 
material relief it may give. * * * * 

Loyal Sufferers. — The broad belt of desolation through the State, as a general rule, marks the 
loyalty to the general government, as is evidenced by the historical fact that the ten thousand 
Union soldiers of this State were raised in this region. Here the "Bushmen'" porpertrated their 
dark deed of cruelty upon the persons of loyal poope, the remaiiiD;.; of whom are t'.i sufferers 
Many were brutally nmrdered, others exiled by the storm of persecution, their property laid 
waste, and now after the sufferings of the past, they return to the miseries of want. 

" Will not the liberality that produced the CIr.istian and Sanitary Commissions come to the 
relief of these sufferers of the nation ? 

" Respectfully submitted, " J- H. LEARD, 

" Agent A. U. C. for Arkansas." 


New York City. 

Mr. Geo. H. Allan, General Agent of the Commission, reports as follows 
concerning liis worli in this city : 

*' Fifteen hundred destitute Southern refugees have been aided in New 
Yori{ City, since January 1st, 1865. Most of these people had lost their all 
during Sherman's great march, and came to the North to avoid impending 
starvation. Hunger and exposure had reduced them to a deplorable condi- 
tion. While crowded together in one of the barracks at the Battery, small- 
pox and measles broke out among them, and at one time, forty persons were 
suffering with these diseases. 

"In April, by direction of the Commission, two "Homes for Refugees" 
were opened; one at the Battery, and the other in W. 24tii Street, by which 
these people were rendered mucli more comfortable. Within a few weeks, 
four hundi'ed persons were sent to the West, and an equal number found 
employment in tlie North and East. The remainder for the most part have 
returned to the South since the termination of the war. Daring the few 
days they were witli us, they were provided with food, clothing, aud medi- 
cine : also transportation to the interior. 

" Six thousand, t/i/riiicnls. donated by the benevolent public, were distributed 
among them, and were received with gr.itiiude. Many who had landed in 
this city in a state of despair, were thus rendered liopeful for the future. 

" Education among tliese people was sadly deficient. Hardly one in ten 
could lead or w)-ite. Tlieir minds were filled with wonder and amazement 
at the sight of Northern activity and progress, and this lesson will not be 
lost upon them. Our late President was mourned by them sincerely, many 
of them voluntarily wearing the sable badge. I have never heard one of 
them speak of Mr. LINCOLN with disrespect. 

"Many interesting incidents concerning the loyalty of these people came 
under my notice. I will mention a few: 

" Rev. jMr. G , of Georgia, brought letters from Union officers, certi- 
fying that he had helped them when sick and in prison. He had been 
wealthy, but had lost all, and fled with his family to the North. Kind 
friends aided us in giving them shelter while in this city, and Government 
gave them transportation to the West. In a few weeks we learned that Mr. 
G. had liired a steam saw-mill in Central Illinois, and was succeeding finely. 
He had established a Sabbith School in a destitute neighborhood, and had 
commenced regular meetings for Divine service. 

" Mrs. T , a Union woman of Charleston, also applied to us for assist- 
ance. She had resided in Charleston during the rebellion, and had sup- 
ported herself by making bags, designed to he filled with sand, for use on 
the rebel fortifications. The remnants were thrown into a closet, and 
afterwards used by her in making shirts for Union prisoners. She also 
visited sick Union soldiers in the rebel hospitals, and gave them fruit and 
delicacies. Lieut. Falks, a Union officer, having been taken prisoner by 
the rebels, escaped and found a refuge in her house. Here he was taken 
down with yellow fever, but she nursed him, under a double peril, for weeks, 
with the tenderness of a mother; she saved his life, and finally aided his 
escape to his regiment. Lieut. F., who is now an editor in this city, narrated 
to me these facts, and Gen. Howard, on hearing of her noble conduct, 
immediately sent us an order for her transportation to Charleston. 

"Mr. S. , of Florida, a good Union man, sixty years of age, was 

treated with every indignity on account of his devotion to the old flag ; — at 
last, the rebels burned his house, killed his stock, and took him out to a 
large tree near by to hang him. Adjusting the noose round his neck, and 
throwing the rope over a limb of the tree, they told him to ' hurrah for 



Jeff. Davis.' '■Never,'' said be, ^ If I am to die, I iciU die a Union man.'' 
Three times the miscreants suspended him by the neck, each time trying to 
force hira to relinquish his Union sentiments. Finding him tixed in his 
determination, they cast him half dead into prison, whence, after two 
months captivity, he escaped. He was at our 'Home' nearly two weeks, 
but has since returned to the South. He was a member of the Methodist 
church, and his whole deportment was that of a consistent Christian. 

"Mr. N , a mechanic, from Charleston, stopped with his family a 

few days for rest at the 'Home.' As I gave him liis tickets, food for his 
journey, and a little present in money, his wife burst into tears, and said, 
'Thomas, when we were feeding that poor Yankee soldier in Charleston, 
I told you God would reward us, and now He is doing it.' For a few mo- 
ments the scene was atfecting, especially when her little daughter came in, 
wondering 'what mamma was crying for.' I afterwards learned from 
them, that Martin Beckman, an Hliuois soldier, having made his escape 
from Andersonville, and reaching Charleston, in the disguise of a rebel sol- 
dier, had found an asylum at their house. They were poor, but Union 
loving people, and told him they would share their last crust with him. 
They provided for him for three weeks, and at a time when bread was worth 
$4 a loaf, and mechanics' wages but .$7 per day. At the end of that time 
the soldier made his escape to his regiment." 

<'Mr C , a Union man from Savannah, came North, wearing a white 

Southern coat. Some idle fellows on Broadway, hooted at him and called 
him a 'rebel.' He stopped, and told them he was a loyal man, and only 
wore the coat because he had no other. They still continued their insulting 
remarks, until finding argument useless, he thrashed one of them soundly, 
when the rest made off. He came and asked my advice; 1 told him to put 
the old coat into the stove, which he did. I then gave him a good suit of 
clothes and he had no further trouble. He finally settled in Wisconsin. 

"Mrs. H , of Columbia, S. C, came to our 'Home' with her three 

children. She was a loyal woman, but her husband was a rebel soldier, 
and refused to write to her. While he was away, she supported herself and 
children by sewing. Times were very hard. She fed and secreted Capt. 
Reeves and other Pennsylvania officers, and aided their escape. She was 
obliged to live mostly on corn meal, as prices wei-e very high. For months 
beef was $3 per lb. ; eggs, $5 per doz.; meal, 50 cts. per lb.; butter, $9 to 
$14 per lb. ; coffee, $28 to $30 per lb. ; bacon, $6 per lb. ; sugar, $28 to $30 
per lb. ; calico, $20 per yard ; cotton cloth, $8 to $12 per yard ; flour, 
$400 per bbl. At this time she could only make $2 per day with her needle, 
and yet she helped Union prisoners. We assisted her, and sent her to her 
relatives, near Circleville, Ohio. 

" Mr. M , of S. C, a loyal man, proprietor of an iron foundry. AVas 

worth $50,000 in 1860. Refused to cast shot and shell for the rebels, and 
his foundry was the only idle one in the State during the war. Of this I 
have abundant proof. All his property was destroyed during Sherman's 
march, by Union troops. He came North with his family. We gave them 
food and clothing, and sent them to Iron Mountain, Mo. 

" Among others, we have assisted a niece of President Munroe, and also 
a grand-daughter of Peter Faneuil, who, a hundred yeai'S ago, presented 
the "Cradle of Liberty" to the Bostonians." 

Numerous letters of gratitude have been received from those who for a 
time have tarried with us. Those who have settled in the West have com- 
menced farming for themselves or have gone to work on wages for others. 
Those who have gone to the South are rebuilding their former homes with 
increased hope for the future. They remember their reception at the 
North, and the efforts made to render them comfortable, and wo are already 
finding them valuable auxiliaries in carrying out oui" work among the 
destitute and suffering people of the South. 





Whoever has read with care the preceding pages, must be convinced of the 
importance of the work in which we are engaged. To illustratxj however, 
the calls which are made upon us, and the manner in which we are welcomed 
by the loyal men of the South, we append some extracts from a numerous 
correspondence received at our office. 

Maj. Oen. Q. O. Ho-»vard. — We have given on the inside page of the 
cover a letter from Gen. Howard, endorsing fully the Union Commission. 
We add an extraet from his address, delivered before the Freedmen's Aid 
Commission, in Chicago, in August last : 

" There is another Commission, called the " American Union Commission," 
I understand the principal object set forth in that, is giving aid to the whites. 
Well, now, under this 13ureau are "refugees," which come tirst in order, 
and they are the white people who have been disturbed by the operations 
of the war. It means all loyal refugees. Now this is taken in its largest 
sense, and as far as the Government can give aid to these poor, loyal, and 
ignorant whites, it does it. Now any oflicers or men who are here, that have 
been with me through South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, and Virginia, know very well that there are thousands upon thou- 
sands of white people who are suii'ering. I never have seen people more 
debased than I found them there. I found many of them with countenances 
perfectly hopeless, without an apparent object in life — listless. I found 
multitudes that could not read nor write, no efforts being put forth for their 
education, none ever thought of. Whatever you may do for the objects of 
this asssociation, you- do well." 

Col. "W'lilttlcsey, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for North Caro- 
lina, writes us on the 4th of August : 

"There is great need of effort in behalf of poor whites in this State, a 
large number of whom are living in idleness, ignorance, and poverty. I do 
not know what your plans are for reaching them. They do not come within 
the provijice of this Bureau, since they are not " loyal refugees''' nor '^Freedmen.^^ 
I have, therefore, no work to carry on among them, but if, in any way, I 
can assist you, I shall be happy to do so." 

20 • 

Gen. R. Saxton Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau for South Caro- 
lina, ■writes us: 

"Your letter of July 24th, was received here during my temporary absence 
North. In reply, I can say the field is ample and the laborers few. For a 
Commission national in its organization, undenominational in its character, 
including members of all the Christian churches, and catholic in its designs, 
recognizing no distinction of caste or color in its benefactions, there was 
never a better opportunity offered for carrying out the objects for which it 
was constituted- In the three States of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 
now under my charge, there should be a teacher located on every principal 
plantation, and hundreds are needed in the towns and cities. 
* * ***** 

"In the interior are needed seeds, agricultural implements of all kinds, 
food, medicines, and clothing of every description for women and children. 
Many are now naked, and if they are not provided for before the inclement 
season, there will be much suffering. Supplies for almost every want inci- 
dent to humanity are needed, — scarcely ain/lhing will come amiss. 

" The war has left desolation, and with it let us hope freedom in its track. 
I can find a place for every earnest teacher you can send. 

" To rear up in these Southern regions a free Christian State, will require 
all the missionary energies of the North for a long time to come; and, if we 
are faithlul to the work noio, in the future these frecdmen may in their turn 
send missionaries to enlighten their brethren in Africa. In behalf of the 
people and the work now under my charge, I respectfully ask all the aid 
your Association can render to it and them." 

Thomas W. Conway, Commissioner for Louisiana, writes us in August 

" There are two hundred and fifty thousand Freedmen now in Louisiana, if 
the most reasonable calculation that can be made at this time by well in- 
formed men can be taken as correct, or nearly so. Out of this vast popula- 
tion, nearly one liutidred thousand will need clothing the coming winter. 
This number will be found chiefly in North-AVestcrn and Norih Louii-iana, 
where the benefits of liberty have not yet extended, and where the free labor 
system has not iully exicmled. 

"'Ihere ate now fifteen thousand black children educated in this State, 
under tlie auspices of this Bureau. There are about three hundred school 
teachers, and one liundred and fifty schools. The work iloiie in this country 
now is the greatest that lias ever been giv<>n to any people heretotore. All 
the missionaiy spirit of the American church can, here in the South, find 
field lor Its We need a lide of emigration from the Nortlu such as 
the North is constantly receiving Ironi Europe We need honest men, men 
who while they may desire to make money, should not desire to do so at the 
expense of the moral and physical welfare of the poor. 

" Do all you can to send good teachers." 

Gen. C. B. Flske, Commissioner for the State of Tennessee, writes on the 
6th of August: * 

" I am grateful to you. Sir, for your generous tender to myself of hearty 
co-operation and aid i'n the work to which 1 have been assigned. There is 
much to do, 1 assure you, and il nctds to be done now. 
* * * * * * * 


♦'Every citizen of the country should labor to promote the interest of all 
sections of our united land. I know of no better way to do this than by ad- 
vancing industrial enterprises, and elevating all classes and colors by the 
dissemination of virtuous intelligence. 

" It will afford me pleasure, while I remain in my present position, to aid 
you in the judicious distribution of your patriotic gifts to the worthy and 
necessitous, and you are at liberty to command my service at any time." 

Our Reception in tlie Soutli. — It is not only from the ofiBcers of the 
Bureau we receive such endorsements. The people of the South give us a 
cordial welcome, and extend to us every facility in their power. They freely 
offer us the use of their school buildings, as in Knoxville, Raleigh, Macon, 
and Atlanta. In Richmond, several of the clergy gave us for a time the use 
of their lecture rooms. Free transportation over the Southern railroads is 
given to our agents and supplies. Our teachers are not only warmly wel- 
comed but partially supported by the Southern people, who are exerting 
every energy to give their children educational advantages. The leading 
Southern newspapers are sent to our central office free of charge. And while 
we occasionally meet jvith opposition from some who have not yet recovered 
from the bitter feelings engendered by the war, we have thus far found our- 
selves and our proposed work warmly and cordially welcomed by the masses 
of the Southern people. Some evidence of this feeling we give in the fol- 
lowing extracts, from correspondence received by us : 

Xortli Carolina— Gov. Hoideu. 

"State of North Carolina Executive Department, 
" Raleigh, N. C, August 1th, 1865. 
" Bev. Lyman Ahhott, New York, 

"Sir: — V'our letter of the 25th ult, addressed to His Excellency, Gov. 
HoLDEN, has been received. His Excellency entirely appri)ves the object 
of your Association as set forth in your circular and letter, and will take 
great pleasure in doing anything to piomote their success. I have no doubt 
the proffer made by your Commission will be kindly and gratefully received 
by North Carolina, the great mass of whose citizens are anxious to bury all 
past ieelings and animosities, and to resume fraternal relations with the 
Northern people ; — indeed there has been in this State throughout the war 
a strong Union party. 
* * ***** 

"I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
(Signed), "LEWIS HANES, 

"Private Secretary to the Governor." 

Florida— Gov. Marvin. 

" OfBce of the Provisional Governor, 

"Tallahasse, Fla., Oct. ith 1865. 
"Rev. Lyman Abbott, 

"Dear Sir: — I received your letter and the circular of the American 
Union Commission some weeks since, and referred it to some of the princi- 


pal citizens of the town. Our State is at present in need of almost every 
thing, but the people are as hopeful as could be expected, and accept the 
abolition of slavery and perpetuity of the Union as fixed facts. A good 
crop next year will do much for them. 

-'You can do the people of the State service by sending to my address at 
this place, say two thousand spelling books, and a thousand arithmetics for 
young beginners, for the use of poor white and colored children. I will 
undertake their distribution. 

" Very respectfully, 
(Signed), •' WM. MARVIN" 

Arkansas. — Gov. Blturphy. 

"Executive Office, 

" Li-BTLE Rock, Ark., Aug. 1th, 1865. 
" Rev. Lyman Abbott : — Yours of the 29th July, is receivsd. The American 
Union Commission is another evidence that the true spirit of Christianity is 
spreading. Love to our race and kindness to God's creatures, — this is true 
patriotism ; — it is the principle that will render republican government 

"Industry, education, and Christian morality are the pillars of freedom. 
Our State is a picture of desolation. The great majority of the people are 
reduced to poverty. The benevolent institutions of the loyal states are pro- 
ducing a right spirit here and softening our hearts, hardened by the terrible 
scenes and sufferings of the war. The farmers are very destitute of stock 
and tools, as well as seeds. However, a great exertion has been made to 
raise something to eat and make something to wear. The people need aid 
in every way. They need an infusion of Northern example of energy and 
industry. Emigrants of the proper character would do themselves and us 
much good. Teachers are much needed, but the people generally are not 
able to support them. The lands of the State are rich ; mineral resources 
unbounded. The climate as healthy as any other State. All the elements 
of wealth are here waiting development. 

"Kindness will conquer the most stubborn, and reform them if reform is 
possible. To love our neighbor as ourselves is Christianity, is happiness, and 
is the foundation of all true freedom. The immense efforts of the benevo- 
lent institutions of the loyal states have done more to conquer the rebellion 
than our armies. 

"With high respect, &c., 

(Signed), " ISA.\C MURPHY." 

What answer shall we make to these and similar appeals? How shall we 
in the name of the North respond to these advances from our fellow-citizens 
who are striving to secure the restoration of the Union, by re-establishing 
not merely the government, but those civil and social institutions, and those 
fraternal feelings which are essential to its perpetuity ? 


Tlie Freednieu. — We are often asked the question, whether the Union 
Commission includes the care of the Freedman. We reply emphatically, — 

The American Union Commission recognizes no distinction of caste or color. 
— It is organized to aid the people of the South — not the black men because 
they are black, nor the white men because they are white, but all men 
because they are men, upon the ground of a common humanity alone. At 
the same time it has been our constant aim to avoid rivalry of organization 
and duplication of charities. The President of the Commission is a member 
of both the American Missionai-y Society and the National Freedmen's Aid 
Commission. And it will always be our aim to maintain the most cordial re- 
lations and the most hearty co-operation between ourselves and all other 
organizations laboring in the same field. 

Tlxe lioyalists of tUe Soutli. — There are more of them than the people 
of the North imagine. A wise Christian magnanimity will indeed in the 
main forget the past, and press forward into the future. It will ask, not 
chiefly, " What has been ?" but. " What is, and shall be?" Nevertheless, 
those who through all the horrors of a four years war, in spite of violence, 
misrepresentation and popular prejudice and passion, remained true to the 
flag and the principles it represented, are peculiarly entitled to a nation's 
grateful remembrance. There were many such. And of all the people of the 
South they have been and still are the greatest sufi"erers. In Northern 
Georgia the most desolate section of the South to day, a secret loyal league 
was maintained throughout the war. In East Tennessee, it is estimated, 
fifteen hundred were murdered in cold blood. In Clarksville, the Govern- 
ment gathered 3,000 women and children, last Spring, the families of Union 
volunteers, recruited in Tennessee, and Northern Georgia and Alabama. 
The author of "The Secret Service, the Field, the Dungeon and the Escape," 
Mr. Richardson of the Tribune, bears strong testimony to the loyalty of 
hundreds of the inhabitants in the mountain districts of North Carolina. 
Are these suiferers to receive no aid and sympathy at our hands ? Shall 
we refuse food to those, who, at peril of their lives, gave it to the Union 
prisoners ? Surely, they ought not to go without some substantial recogni- 
tion of their patriotic self-devotion. And the Union Commission is the 
only organization whose constitution allows it to provide succor and relief 
for them. 



We have now set before you our work ; we have given you the evidence 
of its importance and its practicability. Shall we continue it ? Shall we, 
fellow citizens, in your name, and upon your behalf, proifer your sympathy 
and co-operation to those in the South, who desire to secure the restoration 
of the Union upon the basis of universal liberty, education, industry, and 
Christian morality. 

We have already aided over 75,000 refugees, to procure homes and em- 
ployment. We have sent assistance to an incalculable number in their 
Southern homes. But as winter approaches the distress increases. Will 
you do anything to relieve it? Will you suffer thousands of your fellow 
countrymen to perish within the reach of plenty ? 

We have already aided the people in establishing free schools in the great 
centres of Nashville, Knoxville, Richmond, and Raleigh. Applications for 
continued and more extended assistance increases, from parents whose 
children, unless assisted, must grow up in inevitable ignorance. What 
answer have the Christian, thoughtful, and patriotic people of the North to 
make to this request from the Southern masses for our aid and co-operation, 
in securing for themselves and their children, those educational advantages 
which should be the birth-right of every American citizen ? 

The work of war is over. But peace hath its victories no less than war ; 
its conflicts and its duties too. God grant that America may prove equal to 
that task of restoration and re-building which His Providence has laid 
upon her. 


^■^RTICLE I. — The American Union Commission is constituted foi- the purpose of 

ling and cooperating with tlie people of the United States, which have been 
.esolated and impoverished by the war, in the restoration of their civil and social 
^condition, upon the basis of industry, education, freedom, and Christian morality. 

ARTICLE II.— The Commission consists of not less than ten nor more than 
twenty members, residing in the City of New York and vicinity, together with two 
representatives from each Branch Commission in other places. 

ARTICLE III. — The Commission shall annually elect an Executive Committee 
of not more than twelve members, who shall have the supervision of its whole work, 
subject to the direction and approval of the Commission. 

ARTICLE IV. — Five members of the Commission constitute a quorum. 

ARTICLE V. — The Officers of the Commission are, a President, three Vice-rre- 
aidents, a Treasurer, a General Secretary, a Recording Secretary, and such associate 
Secretaries as shall be elected. 

ARTICLE VI. — The Commission, at any regular meeting, may, by a two-third 
Yote, amend the Constitution, except the 1st Article, which may only be altered at 
the annual meeting, and on previous notice. 


The National Commission shall determine the general principles of united action; 
shall commission all tield agents and teachers, direct their operations, and receive 
monthly reports from them. 

The Commission shall meet on the third Monday of every month, for the transaction 
of regular business ; and on the Tuesday preceding the second Thursday of May, for 
the election of Officers and an Executive Committee. Special meetings may be called 
ty the President or Executive Committee. Every meeting shall be opened with 
■devotional exercises. 


Those interested in this work are invited to organize Branch Commissions, or 
auxiliaries, to be connected with the appropriate Branch. Every Branch will take 
such means as it deems best in raising funds, procuring supplies, etc., in its own dis- 
trict, but will not initiate movements in the Southern States, except by arrangement 
with and under the general direction of the Commission. Each Branch shall make a 
monthly report of its operations to the General Secretary. 


The Executive Committee shall receive the instructions of the Commission at its 
successive sessions, and be charged with their execution. It will possess all the 
power of the Commission in the interval of its session, except the power of amending 
the Constitution and filling vacancies, but its action shall be regularly reported to the 
■Commission, and shall be subject to its revision and correction. It shall hold a weekly 
meeting for the transaction of business. Special meetings may be called by the 
Chairman or General Secretary. The unexplained absence of any resident member 
from three successive sessions of either the Commission or Executive Committee is 
tantamount to a resignation. 


The following are the standing Committees of the Commission: — On Finance, Sup- 
plies, Agencies, Publication, and Education. 

The>se Committees are elected and vacancies in them filled by the Commission. They 
are under the general direction of the Executive Committee. Two constitute a 

NEW YORK CITY-14 Bible House. 

REV. JOSEPH r. THOMrSON, D.D., Pres. REV. GEO. J. MINGINS, D.D., Finan. Sec. 

REV. LY.MAN ABBOl'T, Gen. Sec. A. V. bTOUT, Esq., Treas. 

G. \V. LANE, Esq., C/iaii: K.r. Com. H. M. PIERCK, LL.D. it'ec. Sec. 

T. G. ODIORNE, Esq., Western Secretary, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WM. A. BOOTH, Esq. WM. G. LAMBERT, Esq. 




REV. S. H. TYNG, Jr. REV. .1. T. DURYEA. 



PHILADELPHIA-I2IO Chestnut Street. 

SAML. W. WRAY, Esq., Rec. .SVc. 
SAMUEL WORK, Esq., Treasurer. 
GEORGE G. MEADE, Maj.-Gen. U.S.A. 

MERRICK, Esq., President. 

BOSTON- J 65 Pearl Street. 



HENRY P. KIDDER, Esq. Treas. 

BALTIMORE-89 &, 91 West Baltimore Street. 

G. S GRIFFITHS, Esq., Pres. 
JOHN N. BROWN, Esq., Treas. 
REV. F. ISRAEL, Cor. See. 

J. M. FRAZIER, Esq. 
J. C. BRIDGES, Esq, 

CHlCACO-90 Washington Street. 

C. G. HAMMOND, Pres. 


E. G. HALL, Esq. 


REV. J. M. STRONG, Sec. 
Col. JAMES H. BOW EN, Treasurer. 

REV. T. M. EDDY, D.D. 

NEW HAVEN, Connecticut. 

Hon. henry N. DUBOIS. Pres. REV. D. W. LATHROP, D.D., Sec. 


" D. C. OILMAN, y Education Committee. 

M. C. WHITE, M.D., j 

NASHVILLE, Tennessee. 

HON. J. S. FOWLER, Vice-Pres. 
H. G. SCOVILL, Esq., Jiec. Sec. 
JAMES CAMERON, Esq., Treas. 

RICHMOND, Virginia. 

HON. E ROOT. Pres. 

REV. R. H. ALLEN, Cor Sec. 

HORACE L. KENT, Esq., Pres 


JAMES U. GARDNER, Esq., lYeas.